Saturday, January 14, 2012

Solubility Chart

Solubility chart.xlsx
The following chart contains the most useful solvents for each active. If you click on the active name, it will redirect you to the optimal pH range for formulating as well as % usage.

*n.b. Use the least amount of solvent possible to get the active into solution. Account for its weight as part of the oil or water phase respectively and make the appropriate adjustments to your formula/ recipe in the batch size calculator.

1 N NaOH = 0.39 grams NaOH dissolved in 10 grams distilled water. Use the least amount necessary.

Active Ingredient Solvent #1 Solvent #2 pH

AA2G Water N/A 2.0-7.0

Alpha Lipoic Acid Oil N/A 4.5-6.5

L-Carnosine Water N/A 4.0~6.0

Chrysin 1 N NaOH N/A 6.5-7.0

Co Enzyme Q 10 Oil Ethanol 3.0-7.0

Coffeeberry extract Water Ethanol 4.5-6.0

D- Panthenol Water N/A 4.0-6.0

Ellagic Acid 1 N NaOH N/A 6.8-7.2

Ferulic Acid 1 N NaOH Ethanol 3.0-7.2

Ginger extract Water N/A 5.0-6.0

Genistein 1 N NaOH Ethanol 5.5-6.5

Grape seed Extract Water Ethanol 4.5-6.5

Glycolic acid Water Ethanol pKa 3.83

Green Tea Extract Water Ethanol <4.0

L-Hydroxyproline AHYP Water N/A 4.0-6.0

Idebenone Oil Ethanol 3.0-7.0

Hyaluronic Acid Water N/A 5.0-7.0

Kinetin 1 N NaOH N/A 2.0-9.0

L-Ascorbic Acid Water N/A 2.0-3.2

Lactic Acid Water Ethanol pKa 3.86

MAP Water N/A 7.2

N-Glucosamine Water N/A 4.0-6.0

Niacinamide Water N/A 4.0-6.0

L-Proline Water N/A 4.0-6.0

Quercetin 1 N NaOH N/A 5.5-6.5

Retinol Water Poly 20/Oil 6.0-7.0

Retinyl Palmitate Oil N/A 4.0-6.0

Sclerotium Gum Water N/A 2.0-9.0

Salicylic Acid Ethanol N/A pKa 2.98

Trans Resveratrol Ethanol N/A 5.5-7.2

Vitamin E acetate Water N/A 4.5-6.0

Vitamin E Oil Oil N/A N/A

Vitamin K1 Oil N/A N/A

White Willow Bark Extract Water Ethanol 3.0-4.0

1 N NaOH = 0.39 grams NaOH dissolved in 10 grams distilled water. A very useful solvent and pH adjustor. Use Caution when working with NaOH , it is caustic. Simply washing with running water should you splash on yourself is generally sufficient unless you have an open wound. Use common sense. Do not get the solution in your eyes. Use a pH meter to test the pH and use citric acid to lower the pH.

1 M Citric Acid = 1.92 grams C3H4OH(COOH)3 dissolved in 10 grams distilled water

 H3C6H8O6 + NaOH --> Na3(C6H8O6)+ 3H2O 
Citric acid + Sodium Hydroxide----> Sodium citrate salt + water

 3 molecules of NaOH are required to neutralize one of citric acid..

Saturday, January 7, 2012

Lactic Acid 40 % Gel

Lactic Acid is an alpha hydroxy acid often used as a moisturizing ingredient as well as a gentle exfoliator. Most often lactic acid is purchased in a saturated liquid form, however that is not necessary if you have the 99% pure form available.

Ingredients Percent
Lactic Acid 40 %
Distilled water 40%
Sclerotium gum 2% stock sol'n20%

1. Prepare your tools and ingredients. 

2. Weigh your ingredients.
3. Combine your lactic acid with your water.

4.a.  Blend/ vigorously stir the lactic acid and water, it will be creamy white. 

4.b. There may be tiny grains, that is undesirable, to get it all into solution, place in the hot water bath and blend.

5. When the lactic acid has gone into solution, add the sclerotium gum and continue blending till homogeneous.

6. Remove and allow to cool while stirring.

7. Check the pH.
8. Your 40% lactic acid gel is quite thick and easy to work with. It can be used as a peel with greater control. No fear of watery acids running  and collecting/ pooling on the skin.

Please note pH and pKa.The gel is well below the pKa of 3.86 of Lactic acid. It is close to 100 % free acid.

To buffer the solution, use 0.5 M NaOH. Test it. When you buffer/ neutralize the solution you will reduce the free acid and the efficacy. 

TEST PATCH before using.